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DFG CRC/Transregio 39 PT-PIESA
SP B06

Manufacturing technologies for glass fibre-polyurethane composite structures with embedded piezoceramic sensor elements and adapted electronics

M. Gude, W.-J. Fischer
  1. Aims
  2. Results
  3. Methods
  4. Publications
  5. Contact


Realization of active glass fibre-polyurethane composites by process-integrated production and embedding of novel piezoelectric functional modules as well as integration of adapted sensor / actuator electronics

  • Merge of all process steps into an overall production process
  • Process-integrated contacting and material-adapted polarization
  • Enhancement of the application potential to actuator applications by integrating thermoplastic composite compatible piezoelectric modules (TPM)
  • Supply of adapted sensor / actuator electronics
  • Transfer of the technological basis to an active demonstrator structure




Development of a MFI processing unit and an adapted overall process

  • Adapted procedure based on the LFI process
  • Gravimetric dosing of PZT components, storage of batches in intermediate buffer
  • Adapted handling system for porous electrodes
  • Local integration of PZT components and electrodes

MFI-processing unit

Processing studies

  • Usage of different starting materials (PZT components, electrode structures)
  • Different methods for process-integrated assembly and integration of the sensor modules
  • Adapted process design (spray path, process parameters)
Sensor assembly, embedded and contacted sensor element

Investigations on the influence of the manufacturing process

  • Systematic analysis of process-related stresses (reaction temperature, expansion pressure) )
  • Evaluation of the sensor configuration in embedded state by means of non-destructive testing
  • Proof of functionality on embedded electronic component
Temperature profile during
hardening of the composite
Proof of functionality on embedded transponder

Development of methods for contacting and polarization

  • Conceptual design and testing of process-integrated and subsequent methods of contacting
  • Numerical, linear-dielectric simulation of the field strength distribution for the derivation of required polarization voltages
  • Analysis of dielectric strength and polarization studies
Unit cell
Simulated field strength distribution

Development of adapted sensor electronics

  • Design and construction of wireless data and energy transmission systems suitable for embedding into composite structures
  • Experimental investigations on the transmission behavior
  • Development of adapted sensor electronics with consideration of the process requirements
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Schematic and prototype of the sensor node hardware


Processing studies


  • Sensitivity analyzes
  • Ensuring the reproducibility of the sensor assembly
                                                                                                                          MFI processing unit  

Simulation of the electric field


  • Numerical simulation of the resulting field strength distribution

                                                                                                                                                   3D model for linear dielectric simulation

Non-destructive testing


  • Interface analysis
  • Investigations on the influence of the manufacturing process
X-ray image of an integrated sensor module

Characterization / Proof of functionality


  • Testing of generic samples
  • Characterization of the sensor / actuator function
Test setup for cyclic three-point-bending

Circuit design and testing


  • Evaluation electronics suitable for embedding
  • Conception and development of polarization-resistant circuits
Principle for polarization-resistant circuit


Reviewed Publications

[Huf13a] Hufenbach A, Gude M, Geller S (2013)
Cellular fibre-reinforced polyurethane composites with sensory properties. Adv Eng Mater, doi:10.1002/adem.201300080
[Huf13b] Hufenbach W, Gude M, Geller S (2013)
Prozessentwicklung zur serientauglichen Integration neuartiger piezoelektrischer Sensorelemente in Glasfaser-Polyurethan-Verbundwerkstoffe. In: 19. Symp Verbundwerkst Werkstoffverb. Karlsruhe, Deutschland, S 654-663
[Huf13c] Hufenbach W, Fischer W-J, Gude M, Geller S, Tyczynski T (2013)
Processing studies for the development of a manufacture process for intelligent lightweight structures with integrated sensor systems and adapted electronics. Proc Mater Sci 2:74-82
[Wed13b] Weder A, Geller S, Heinig A, Tyczynski T, Hufenbach W, Fischer W-J (2013)
A novel technology for the high-volume production of intelligent composite structures with integrated piezoceramic sensors and electronic components. Sens Actuators A 202:106-110
[Huf11a] Hufenbach W, Gude M, Modler N, Zichner M, Heber T, Geller S (2011)
Seriengerechte Integration piezokeramischer Sensorelemente in Glasfaser-Polyurethan-Verbundstrukturen. Schriftenreihe Werkstoffe und werkstofftechnische Anwendungen. In: 18. Symp Verbundwerkst Werkstoffverb. Chemnitz, Deutschland, pp 283-288

Other publications

[Wed13c] Weder A, Geller S, Fischer W-J (2013)
Angepasste Piezosensorelektronik und integrierte drahtlose Sensornetzwerke zur Herstellung intelligenter Leichtbauteile. In: Proc Mikrosystemtech Kongr. VDE Verlag, Berlin, S 540-543
[Huf13d] Hufenbach W, Fischer W-J, Michaelis A, Gebhardt S, Geller S, Tyczynski T, Heinig A, Weder A, Hohlfeld K (2013)
High-volume production of glass fibre-reinforced polyurethane composite structures with integrated piezoceramic sensor elements and adapted electronics. In: Proc CRC/Transregio 39. Nuremberg, Germany, pp 57-61
[Sau13] Sauer S, Türke A, Weder A, Fischer W-J (2013) Inkjet Printed Humidity Threshold Monitoring Sensor Solution with Irreversible Resistance Change for Passive RFID Applications. In: Proc IEEE Sens. Baltimore, USA, S 721-724
[Wed12] Weder A, Geller S, Heinig A, Tyczynski T, Hufenbach W, Fischer W-J (2012)
Integration of Piezoceramic Sensor Elements and Electronic Components in Glass Fibre Reinforced Polyurethane Composite Structures. Proc Eng 47:354-357
[Huf12] Hufenbach W, Gude M, Geller S (2012)
Function integrated fibre-reinforced polyurethane composites with cellular matrix for intelligent lightweight structures. In: Proc Cellular Mater, Dresden
[Huf11b] Hufenbach W, Gude M, Fischer W-J, Heinig A, Geller S, Weder A (2011)
Integration of electronic components in glass fibre-reinforced polyurethane composite structures. In: Int Symp Piezocompos Appl. Dresden, Deutschland
[Huf11c] Hufenbach W, Fischer W-J, Michaelis A, Gebhardt S, Geller S, Tyczynski T, Heinig A, Weder A, Hohlfeld K (2011)
Integration of piezoceramic and electronic functional elements in glass fibrereinforced polyurethane composite structures. In: Proc CRC/Transregio 39. Chemnitz, Germany, pp 65-69


[Lei11] Leichtbau-Zentrum Sachsen GmbH. Anordnung und Verfahren zur direkten Erzeugung eines sensorisch-aktorischen Elements in adaptiven Bauteilstrukturen. Offenlegungsschrift DE102011010313A1. 2011-12-15


Project Manager:

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Maik Gude
Technische Universität Dresden
Institut für Leichtbau und Kunststofftechnik
Holbeinstraße 3
01307 Dresden

Phone: +49 351 46-38153


Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Wolf-Joachim Fischer
Technische Universität Dresden
Institut für Halbleiter und Mikrosystemtechnik
Nöthnitzer Str. 64
01062 Dresden

Phone: +49 351 463-36336


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